Knowledge System

Industry & Manufacturing

Includes mining, manufacturing, and construction.


A. Industry & Manufacturing

1. Final Products

a. Construction
b. Mining, Extraction, Processing
c. Manufacturing
d. Energy industries
e. Chemical industries
f. Electronics & Electronic industries
g. Timber, Paper & Pulp
h. Automotive & Transport industries

i. Air
ii. Land
iii. Water
iv. Space
v. Underground

i. Machinery & Equipment
j. Information & Telecommunications industries
k. Internet & Cyberspace
l. Food & Agriculture 
m. Service Sector
n. Legal & Financial Services
o. Other Services

2. Intermediary Products & Processes

a. Industrial Operations

3. Supplier systems and networks
4. Waste Related Industries


A. Environment Impacts

1.Impacts on land, water, air, and underground spaces

a. Air pollution
b. Water, riverways, aquifers, and marine pollution
c. Soil degradation
d. Chemical changes
e. Reduced visibility and smog effects

2.Specific modes and mediums of pollution and dislocation

a. Acid rain
b. Emission of trace metals
c. Other toxic emissions

3. Threats to life-supporting properties

a. Loss of habitat
b. Deforestation
c. Damages to marine life
d. Reduction of bio-diversity

B. Climate change

1. Greenhouse gas emissions
2. CFC impacts and ozone depletion
3. Interactive effects of GHG

C. Hazards & wastes

1. Solid and non-solid wastes
2. Safety, health, and related hazards

D. Socioeconomic Dislocations

1. Economic impacts

a. Income effects
b. Employment effects and unemployment

2. Social and political impacts

a. Demographic dislocations
b. Quality of life impacts
c. Urbanization strains

3. Consumption of non-renewable resources

a. Energy resources
b. Minerals resources
c. Other natural resources

i. Wood and wood products
ii. Food related products
iii. Providers of ecological services


A. Designing for Environment

1. Industrial ecology
2. Life cycle analysis
3. Industrial metabolism
4. Input-output mechanisms

B. Best S & T practices

1. Substitution and design Alternatives

a. Pertaining to functions
b. Pertaining to products
c. Pertaining to entire production process and products
d. Pertaining to sales of products or of functions

2. Cleaner production
3. Strategies toward Wastes and discharges

a. Waste minimization
b. Waste management
c. Waste as raw material

4. Eco-efficiency


A. New principals & best practices

1. Polluter pays principle (PPP) 
2. Pollution prevention 
3. Eco-labeling
4. Prior Informed Consent (PIC) 
5. Separate but differentiated responsibility
6. Other evolving principles

B. Green Regulation & Legislation

1. Formal regulations

a. Improved standards and codes
b. Harmonization policies

i. National
ii. Regional
iii. International
iv. Sectoral

2. Voluntary Restrictions and regulations
3. Informal regulations

C. Market Strategies

1. Incentives for greening

a. Target of incentives

i. For waste minimization
ii. Waste management
iii. Other adjustments

b. Instrument of incentives

i. Financial instruments

a. Subsidies
b. Taxes
c. Deposit-refund systems
d. Experimental measures

i. Performance instruments
ii. Evaluation instruments

2. New market instruments

a. Emission trading
b. Financial Instruments
c. Insurance strategies
d. Other instruments

D. Full Cost Accounting

1. Targeted to activities and agents

a. For Economies and firms
b. For tradeables and non-tradeables

2. Related to requirements for undertaking full cost accounting

a. Education of public and industrial workers
b. Training programs
c. Experimental and innovative accounting mechanisms