Knowledge System


Cultivation of the soil, producing crops, and raising livestock and fish.


A. Agriculture

1. Agricultural production

a. Crop production
b. Livestock and feedstock production
c. Fisheries production

2. Management of Supply & Demand

a. Management of natural resources
b. Agricultural science, engineering, and technology
c. Storage of products

i. Supply networks
ii. Inventories and storage

d. Processing and packaging
e. Shipment and distribution



A. Impacts of Chemicals & Pollutants

1. Impacts on land, water, and air

a. Soil erosion and rangeland degradation
b. Erosion
c. Water and air pollution

i. Emission of nitrates
ii. Leaching and evaporation of fertilizers
iii. GHG emissions

2. Depletion of soil organic matter
3. Livestock methane emission

B. Damage to Natural Systems

1. Damages due to irrigation systems
2. Damming/diversion of rivers
3. Wasting of water via evaporation
4. Impacts of production choices

a. Narrow genetic base crops and loss of biodiversity
b. Breed substitution and crossbreeding
c. Destruction of local vegetation and wildlife

5. Ecological dislocations

a. Creation of ponds for fishing
b. Deforestation
c. Erosion of agricultural capacity

C. Socio-Economic Dislocations

1. Economic Impacts

a. Income effects
b. Diminishing returns to intensive production
c. Instability of the market
d. Unfair competition
e. Induced inequalities

2. Social Impacts

a. Demographic dislocations
b. Social dislocations

3. Hazards & Wastes

a. Health and safety hazards
b. Agricultural and agro-industrial residues

i. Excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides
ii. Plastic and other debris in marine systems
iii. Other toxic and non-toxic wastes

4. Mismanagement & Misuse of Technology

a. Heavy use of inputs, energy, and chemicals
b. Building of resistance in insect species
c. Elimination of natural enemies
d. Faulty construction and management of services
e. Faulty allocation of land



A. Improved Agricultural Practices

1. Better farm machinery & irrigation systems
2. Less damaging fertilizer application methods
3. Improved capital/labor balances
4. Minimizing use of hazardous chemicals

a. Recycling and reuse
b. Management of hazardous wastes and chemicals

5. Principles & practices

a. Integrated pest management (IPM)
b. Total quality control measures (TQCM)

B. Biotechnology Innovations & Use

1. Improved genetically engineered plants
2. Improved breed productivity
3. Advances in tissue culture



A. Improved Markets and Mechanisms

1. Effective financial instruments

a. Fees and taxes
b. Subsidies and other incentives
c. Effective pricing practices

2. Improved market access and performance
3. Reliable sources of finance for agriculture
4. Market-based measures for regulation

B. Government Oversight

1. Provision of resources
2. Enforcing standards in inputs and processes
3. Monitoring of stocks, performance, and quality
4. Innovation in policies and credit facilities

C. Improved Socio-economic Conditions

1. Reduction/termination of debt
2. Improved income distribution
3. Better working conditions
4. Enhanced role of women
5. Improved health and sanitation conditions

D. New Policy Responses

1. Formal intra- and inter-national cooperation

a. Technology transfer
b. Improved cross-border relations
c. Measures to alleviate debt, trade barriers, and other obstacles

2. Informal intra- and inter-national activities

a. NGO activities
b. Collaboration in research and development
c. Business measure and joining ventures

3. Enhanced institutional collaboration

a. Intra- and inter-governmental collaboration
b. Activities supporting international collaboration
c. Activities towards new agreements

4. New policies and Principles

a. Polluter Pays Principle (PPP)
b. Precautionary Principle (PP)
c. Prior Informed Consent (PIC)
d. Evolution of new principles