Knowledge System


Includes size, density, composition, and distribution of people in a given location, as well as changes in these factors


A. Population variables

1. Size

a. Growth
b. Fertility, mortality & migration

2. Composition

a. Age, gender
b. Skills/education
c. Socio-economic
d. Other

3. Distribution

a. Spatial
b. Density

4. Changes in Size, Composition, and Distribution.


A. Social & resource constraints relative to demand

1. Structure of distribution

a. Absolute shortages
b. Competition between present demands
c. Competition between present and future demands
d. Unequal distribution of resources

2. Type of goods

a. Government provided goods
b. Consumer goods, disposable income
c. Non-renewable resources
d. Renewable resources
e. Space or congestion level

B. Gender & age-specific problems

1. Gender inequality

a. Low status of women outside motherhood
b. High fertility
c. Female and infant health
d. Girl education
e. Intra-family resource competition
f. Early marriage

2. Aging

a. Dependence costs
b. Health care costs
c. Emptiness/alienation
d. Labor effects -- relative shortage of young labor force -- Labor imports (legal and illegal)


A. Fertility

1. Population awareness programs

a. On desired family size
b. On child development
c. On contraception

2. Fertility control

a. Family planning

i. Contraceptives: costs, accessibility, acceptance

b. Fertility enhancing technologies

B. Health services

1. Technical

a. Improved medicine/cures
b. Epidemic control
c. Prevention
d. Accessibility

2. Organization

a. Central systems
b. Grass-roots systems
c. Other

3. Orientation/target group

a. By age, infants, children, young adults, elderly
b. By income/social group


A. Education

1. Type of education

a. Vocational skills -- traditional, apprenticeship, modern
b. Formal
c. Retraining

2. Level of education

a. Basic school education for children
b. Basic education for adults
c. Higher education

3. Public awareness campaigns

B. Improvement of women's opportunities and skills

1. Legal status
2. Job opportunities
3. Skill improvement
4. Empowerment groups

C. Age-specific support programs

1. Elderly

a. Pension and financial similar systems
b. Care system, e.g. nursing homes, live-in nurses, family help subsidies
c. Support of extended family
d. Activities for elderly

2. Children

a. Children in poverty
b. Child-oriented infrastructure
c. Various forms for improving family life

D. Safety nets

1. Low-cost health, housing, other services
2. Food-aid
3. Income redistribution system