Knowledge System

Governance & Institutions

Authoritative and legitimate modes of managing public and private interests at international, national, state, regional, and local/municipal levels of organization.


A. Provision of Public Goods

1. Physical Infrastructure

a. Transportation 
b. Communication
c. Other

2. Social Infrastructure

a. Identity confirmation
b. Defining & maintaining national image

3. Regulation

a. Formal modes
b. Informal methods
c. Mixed modes

4. Legislation

a. Executive modes & decrees
b. Legislative systems

i. Formal institutional
ii. Informal or traditional

5. Adjudication and Dispute Settlement

a. Formal mechanisms

i. Courts of law
ii. Claims systems

b. Informal mechanisms
c. Traditional mechanisms

6. National Security

a. Defense from external threats

i. Funding of defense related activities and R&D
ii. Procurement and maintenance of armed forces

b. Internal "law and order"

7. Distribution of benefits and entitlements

a. Social security
b. Unemployment benefits
c. Insurance coverage

i. Medical
ii. Social services
iii. Personal damages

B. Management of Interests & Policies

1. Articulation of demands

a. Balancing interests
b. Representation of interests
c. Defining authoritative preferences

2. Intermediation Processes

a. Political parties
b. Informal political groupings
c. Forms of representation
d. Forms of political participation

3. Influencing External Activities & Policies

a. Shaping foreign & economic policies
b. Defining position toward globalization processes

4. Managing governance loads & capabilities

a. Succession issues
b. Accountability & related issues
c Policy formulation & consequences
d. Managing government capabilities


A. Socio-Economic & Political Pressures

1. Population Demands

a. Changes in amount of demand for basic resources (food, energy, etc.)
b. Demands due to rural-urban
c. Demands due to immigration

2. Equity Demands & Pressures

a. Enhanced ethnic, cultural, racial disparities in wealth and opportunities
b. Enhanced income and/or class disparities
c. Enhanced regional or spatial disparities

3. Changes in the composition of demand

a. For types of foodstuffs
b. For energy resources
c. For infrastructure and services
d. Other

B. Challenges to Legitimacy

1. Internal Challenges

a. Failures of representation

i. Cultural or ethnic tensions 
ii. Tensions due to changes in demographic composition
iii. Pressures due to migration (internal and external)

b. Conflicts for control of governance
c. Breakdown of social order and/or the social contract

2. External Challenges

a. Foreign military activity
b. Competitive pressures in the international economy
c. Intended or unintended population inflows
d. Specific economic threats

3. Changes in Territorial Boundaries

a. Due to session movements
b. Due to territorial acquisitions 
c. Due to unification


A. Marshalling Innovations for Demand Management

1. Monitoring Consumer & Voter Behavior
2. Uses of Technology Networks for Connectivity to Constituencies
3. Facilitating Access to Benefits & Services

B. Pursuing Eco-efficiency in Public Infrastructure and Enterprises

1. Greening of Governance and Institutions

a. Greening of infrastructure and services
b. Greening of physical processes and deliverables


A. Improved Conduct of Collective Action

1. Demand Management
2. Collective Security Provisions

a. Formal accords and agreements

i. Bilateral
ii. Regional
iii International

b. Informal arrangements

3. Improving Representation
4. Effective Interest Articulation
5. Routinization of Responses

a. Bilateral
b. Regional
c International

B. Effective Institutional & Civic Feedback

1. Strengthening Civic Performance

a. Empowering Community Participation
b. Facilitating Feedback on action and decision

2. Establishing Institutional Accountability
3. Commonality in Reporting Formats
4. Facilitating Access to Financial Resources

a. Creation of new Credit Mechanisms
b. Expanding Opportunities
c. Strengthening effectiveness of "safety nets"