Research and Reports

Biographical Sketches


GSSD Reports

Global Accords for Sustainable Development:
Enabling Technologies and Links to Finance and Legal Institutions

Biographical Sketches

Braden R. Allenby

Dr. Allenby is currently the Director for Energy and Environmental Systems at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, on temporary assignment from his position as Research Vice President, Technology and Environment, for AT&T. He graduated cum laude from Yale University in 1972, and received his Juris Doctor from the University of Virginia Law School in 1978 and his Masters in Economics from the University of Virginia in 1979. He received his Masters in Environmental Sciences from Rutgers University in the Spring of 1989, and his Ph.D. in Environmental Sciences from Rutgers in 1992. Dr. Allenby is a member of the Virginia Bar, and has worked as an attorney for the Civil Aeronautics Board and the Federal Communications Commission, as well as a strategic consultant on economic and technical telecommunications issues.

Dr. Allenby has authored a number of articles and book chapters on industrial ecology and Design for Environment; is co-editor of The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems, published by the National Academy Press in 1994; and is co-author of several engineering textbooks, including Industrial Ecology, published by Prentice-Hall in January of 1995, and Design for Environment, published by Prentice Hall in 1996. Dr. Allenby is a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Arts, Manufactures & Commerce.

Wallace R. Baker

Wallace R. Baker, a member of the Paris and Illinois Bars, is a senior partner in the firm of Baker & McKenzie. With Roger Pinto, a professor of international law at the University of Paris, he founded the Paris office of Baker & McKenzie in 1963. Mr. Baker has law degrees from the University of Paris (Licence - 1972), the Free University in Brussels (Docteur en Droit - 1962), and the Harvard Law School (L.L.B. - 1952).

His firm has an active environmental law practice advising clients of many nationalities in the environmental laws of more than thirty-three countries where the firm maintains more than fifth offices. This practice includes international issues, complex environmental litigation, environmental aspects of transactions, advice on compliance with regulations, and environmental audits.

Mr. Baker has a special interest in how law can address the challenges of sustainability and, more particularly, how the functioning of law can be made more effective and less costly.

He is the author of numerous articles in French and English on French and American business law, international litigation, and corporate law. He has contributed a chapter on law to the forthcoming gook to be published by the MIT Press entitled The Global System for Sustainable Development, reflecting his work with Professor Nazli Choucri of MIT.

Nazli Choucri

Nazli Choucri is Professor of Political Science and Associate Director of the Technology and Development Program at MIT. A graduate of the American University in Cairo, Dr. Choucri holds M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford University. She joined the MIT faculty in 1969.

Dr. Choucri's professional background is as an analyst of international political and economic change, focusing on potentials for conflict at national, regional, and global levels. Her work focuses on types of political risks related to energy policy and technological investments. She has worked on problems related to the world oil market, energy and development, and technology transfer. She is author of International Energy Futures: Petroleum Prices, Power, and Payments, published by the MIT Press, and of International Politics of Energy Interdependence, and has published extensively in these areas.

In conjunction with her energy and development expertise, Dr. Choucri has worked extensively on problems related to population and political change and their impacts on social demand -- in both developing and industrial countries. She has directed the United Nations study published under the title Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Population and Conflict.

Dr. Choucri has been involved in the technical aspects of the preparatory work for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED 1992) and the follow-up. During this period she directed the MIT study on Global Accord: Environmental Challenges and International Responses, MIT Press, 1993. She chairs the MIT Global Forum on Sustainable Development and serves as Head of the Middle East Program at MIT, an interdepartmental program of graduate study on technology, development, and public policy.

Professor Choucri serves as consultant to various national and international agencies. Her international experience includes advising and consulting in the following countries: Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Canada, Colombia, Egypt, France, Greece, Honduras, Kuwait, Mexico, Norway, Pakistan, Qatar, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen, among others. Dr. Choucri is Editor of the MIT Press Series on "Global Environmental Accords: Strategies for Sustainability" and serves as General Editor of the International Political Science Review.

Rudolf Dolzer

Professor Dolzer is currently Professor of Law, University of Bonn. He was born and educated in Germany, completing studies in sociology, political science, and law at the University of TŸbingen. In 1965/66, he was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship; in 1966-69, he studied law at the University of Heidelberg, receiving in 1971, the degree of Doctor of Law (Constitutional Law, German and U.S.)

Subsequently, 1971/72, Dr. Dolzer studied at Harvard Law School, focusing on international law, and received Master of Laws degree; in 1972-75, he undertook a legal internship in Germany; and in 1975-77, he attended Harvard Law School, with an emphasis on international economic law, completing Doctor of Law degree.

From 1978-89, Dr. Dolzer was a Research Fellow, Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law (emphasis on international economic and environmental law); in 1981-85, he was elected representative of scientific staff in supervisory board on Max Planck-Society; and in 1984 he joined the Habilitation, University of Heidelberg (teaching international law, constitutional law)

In 1986, he was appointed as Professor of Law, University of Heidelberg. He was appointed as Professor at University of Mannheim in 1989 and Vice Rector (1990-1992). During 1989-91, Dr. Dolzer served as member of Parliamentary Commission on environmental issues and was reappointed 1992-94. He served as member, Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel, Global Environment Facility, in 1991-94.

From March 1992-95, Dr. Dolzer served as Director General, Office of the Federal Chancellor, Bonn, and since February 1995, as Personal Advisor to the German Minister of Environmental Protection, Nature Protection, and Reactor Safety in international affairs. In the Fall 1995, he was a Visiting Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Current special areas of interest include: international economic law; environmental law and politics; environmental conventions; protection of climate, of biodiversity, international waters, and ozone layer; international institutions; environment and trade and investment; North/South cooperation; liability for environmental damage; dispute settlement Professor Dolzer is author of about 90 publications; two books and some articles in English language; latest book: Bilateral Investment Treaties (March 1995) (June 1995).

Elizabeth Dowdeswell

Ms. Dowdeswell joined the United Nations Environment Programme as its third Executive Director in January 1993 and set in motion a massive restructuring process to improve transparency, cost effectiveness, and accountability within UNEP. In line with the Earth Summit's Agenda 21, UNEP was the first UN agency to totally reorient its programme and administration to meet the mandate entrusted to it.

Agenda 21 has reinforced UNEP's catalytic and coordinating role and its main priority of providing a sound basis for sustainable development policy-making. During her tenure as Executive Director, UNEP has adopted a mission statement that encapsulates what the organization does, how it does it, and why. In essence UNEP is here "to provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing, and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations."

Before joining the United Nations, Ms. Dowdeswell was Assistant Deputy Minister at Environment Canada and head of the Atmospheric Environment Service, the primary weather and atmosphere agency of the national government. Ms. Dowdeswell was Canada's principal delegate to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Co-chair of the working group on mechanisms in the negotiations leading to the Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Ms. Dowdeswell has been Canada's Permanent Representative to the World Meteorological Organization, twice elected to its Executive Council. In this role, and earlier, as Canadian Chair of the Great Lakes Water Quality Board for the Canada-United States International Joint Commission, she proved her singular negotiating strengths and her driving force to bring about positive change.

Prior to her service with Environment Canada, Ms. Dowdeswell worked as a management consultant to the federal government and led a number of public inquiries into such politically sensitive areas as Canada's unemployment and benefits programme, water policy and the standard and structure of weather forecasting services. She holds a Master of Science degree in behavioral sciences from Utah State University, a Bachelor of Science in home economics and a teaching certificate from the University of Saskatchewan.

Elisabeth M. Drake

Dr. Drake received a Sc.D. degree in Chemical Engineering from MIT in 1966. As the Associate Director for New Technologies at the MIT Energy Laboratory, she is involved in several research projects relating to new energy or energy-efficient technologies or planning aids in anticipation of the growing importance of environmental sustainability and resource conservation in internationally competitive markets. Prior to 1989, she was a Vice President at Arthur D. Little, Inc., where she had been a staff member for over 25 years.

Dr. Drake is a Fellow of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), and a Member of the National Academy of Engineering, the American Chemical Society, and Sigma Xi. She is a Registered Professional Engineer in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

Omar E. El-Arini

Founding Director of the Secretariat of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol, Dr. El-Arini draws upon extensive international experience. He was born in Egypt and educated in Egypt, USA, and U.K. He worked in the Chemical Industry in Germany, then directed research programs on Environmental Conservation and on Ancient Environment in Egypt and taught Archaeological Chemistry at both Cairo University and the American University of Cairo. In addition, Dr. El-Arini worked in the Science Section of the United States Embassy in Cairo on contract with the U.S. National Science Foundation, Founding Director of the Secretariat of the Multilateral Fund.

Jeremy Eppel

Serving since October 1992 as Counsellor (policy advisor) to the Director for Environment, OECD, Paris, Mr. Eppel's responsibilities span the entire scope of the Environment Directorate's activities, including relations with international organizations and the private sector (business and NGOs). He played a major role in organizing the meeting of OECD Environment Ministers in February 1996. He has special responsibility for sustainable development, notably for relations with the UN Commission on Sustainable Development and preparations for the 1997 UN General Assembly Special Session, and he is managing the Environment Directorate's work on sustainable consumption and production.

Mr. Eppel graduated from Cambridge University with a Masters Degree in Geography. In 1977 he joined the UK Department of Transport and 8n 1980 the UK Department of the Environment. He was Private Secretary to the Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for the Environment from 1981-1983. Until September 1992, he was responsible for a variety of policy areas, including waste management, marine pollution, housing, and local government finance. His last post in the UK Government before joining the OECD was as head of the Secretariat to the UK Advisory Committee on Business and the Environment, a group of 25 CEOs established in 1991 to provide forward-looking advice to Government on issues such as climate change, recycling, and environmental management.

J. Hugh Faulkner

Mr. Faulkner has served as Member of the Canadian Parliament (1965-79); as Chairman of the Labour Committee (1966); and as Canadian Delegate to the UN General Assembly (1967); Deputy Speaker of the House of Commons (1968-70). In addition, he served as Parliamentary Secretary to Secretary of State (1970-72); as Member of Prime Minister Trudeau's Government (1972-79), including Secretary of State (1972-76), Science and Technology (1976-77), and Indian and Northern Affairs (1978-79).

Among Mr. Faulkner's professional activities are: Visiting Professor of Management, Ottawa University (1980-82); Lecturer, Bromfan School of Management, McGill University (1981-82); Vice President, Alcan Aluminium, Montreal (1980-83); Managing Director, Indian Aluminium CO, Calcutta (1983-87); President, Alcan Aluminium SA, Geneva (1987-89); Secretary General, International Chamber of Commerce (1989-90); Executive Director, Business Council for Sustainable Development (1990-94). In 1995 Mr. Faulkner assumed responsibilities as Executive Chairman, Sustainable Project Management (SPM).

Christiana Figueres

Christiana Figueres is the founder and Executive Director of the Center for Sustainable Development in the Americas (CSDA). Since founding the CSDA in October, 1994, Ms. Figueres has been very active in international environmental activities relating to Latin America. A frequent panelist in international environmental policy fora and author on the subject, Ms. Figueres was recently the project leader of a USAID-sponsored national capacity building workshop in Guatemala on jointly implemented measures to combat climate change.

Formerly Director of the Latin American and Caribbean Region for the United States Export Council on Renewable Energy and Senior Counsel at the Hawthorne Group, Ms. Figueres has over twenty years' experience in the Costa Rican Government, the United Nations Development Programme, and as an independent consultant for organizational development.

A native of Costa Rica, Ms. Figueres has a Masters degree in Social Anthropology from the London School of Economics and a Bachelors degree from Swarthmore College.

Lowell Flanders

Mr. Flanders currently serves as Chief, Human Development, for the Institutions and Technology Branch, Division for Sustainable Development, in the United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development.

Peter S. Fox-Penner

Dr. Peter S. Fox-Penner is an assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Energy specializing in technology policy, research and development budgeting and management, and energy and environmental policy issues. In addition to these broad areas of responsibility, Dr. Fox-Penner participates directly in matters involving electricity restructuring, global climate change, and energy efficiency, renewable energy, and natural gas research and development programs.

Just prior to this assignment, Dr. Fox-Penner spent eight months serving as a Senior Advisor for Technology Policy in the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the White House. In this role, he coordinated the activities of the Committee on Civilian Technology in the National Science and Technology Council and provided advice on civilian technology policy and research and development budgets.

Dr. Fox-Penner's first appointment within the Clinton Administration was Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). As the Chief Operating Officer for this unit of the Department, Dr. Fox-Penner led in the preparation and defense of EERE's $1.2 billion annual budget and directed the unit's policy and strategic analyses. He also played a major role in the strategic direction of many of the unit's programs, including the Climate Change Action Plan, the Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle, the Natural Gas Strategic Plan, and renewable energy and environmental technology initiatives.

Prior to entering the Clinton Administration, Dr. Fox-Penner was a Vice President at Charles River Associates (CRA), Boston, Massachusetts, where he built a million-dollar economic and management consulting practice in energy and the environment. At the time of his promotion, he was CRA's youngest Vice President, and one of only a few vice presidents ever created via internal promotions at the firm. Dr. Fox-Penner's clients included the Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Gas Research Institute, several of the nation's largest electric and gas utilities, and many of Washington's leading regulatory law firms.

Dr. Fox-Penner is the author of numerous scholarly and popular articles and books on technical, economic, and policy issues. His 1990 monograph, Electric Power Transmission and Wheeling: A Technical Primer, is one of the Edison Electric Institute's most popular publications, and is used in many industry seminars and short courses. During 1991 and 1992, Dr. Fox-Penner taught environmental economics at the graduate level on the faculty of Boston University's Center for Energy Environmental Studies.

Dr. Fox-Penner began his career at the University of Illinois Energy Research Group, one of the earliest energy policy centers in the United States. In this organization, Dr. Fox-Penner participated in input-output studies of energy policies, taxes, energy sources, and transportation modes.

He holds degrees in electrical and mechanical engineering from the University of Illinois (Urbana) and a doctorate in economics from the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business. His hobbies are playing the drums, bicycling, and reading history and political science.

David P. Hackett

David P. Hackett is a partner of Baker & McKenzie, Chicago, Illinois. He is a graduate of Haverford College and the University of Pennsylvania Law School and is a member of the District of Columbia and Illinois Bars. Before joining Baker & McKenzie, Mr. Hackett was a Trial Attorney with the Environmental Enforcement Section of the United States Department of Justice from 1985 to 1989, where he litigated environmental matters on behalf of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, particularly Regions III (Philadelphia) and VIII (Denver).

At the Department of Justice, he was lead counsel for major national Superfund, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Clean Air Act, and Clean Water Act cases. For his work, he received a Department of Justice Special Achievement Award. Prior to that, Mr. Hackett was associated with a private firm in Washington, D.C., where he was engaged in environmental counseling and litigation on behalf of a wide range of corporations and trade associations. Mr. Hackett has published numerous articles on domestic and international environmental law.

Mr. Hackett is a past Chairman of the International Environmental Law Committee of the American Bar Association's Section of Natural Resources, Energy, and Environmental Law.

Razali Ismail

Mr. Razali Ismail has served as Director-General for Political Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia and previously as Ambassador to Poland and India before appointed in June 1988 as the Permanent Representative of Malaysia to the United Nations, New York.

At the United Nations has been actively involved in several bodies of the United Nations, inter alia: (i) heading the Malaysian delegation in the Security Council 1989-1990; (ii) Chairman, Group of 77 (developing countries of the South); (iii) Chairman of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development; and others dealing with issues of development, environment, human rights, reforms of the United Nations, and political issues such as Palestine and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Has delivered papers on above issues at seminars/conferences.

He represented Asia on the Preparatory Committee on the 50th Anniversary of the United Nations; and also served as Adjunct Professor of International Studies, Michigan State University 1993-95; Member, International Advisory Panel of the Just World Trust, Malaysia; Member, Board of Advisers, Wetlands International Asia-Pacific, Malaysia; Fellow, Institute for Environment and Development, National University of Malaysia; Member, The Explorers Club, New York; Fellow of the Foreign Policy Association, New York.

Among key awards and decorations are the following: Dato' Setia DiRaja Kedah (DSDK); Panglima Setia Mahkota (PSM); Langkawi Environmental Award, and Honorary Doctorate in Law, National University of Malaysia.

Jiang Zhenghua

Professor Jiang Zhenghua was born in 1937 in Zhenjian Province, China. He received his Ph.D. equivalent in System Theory. His fields of expertise are: demography, econometrics, and system engineering. He has served as Deputy Minister of the State Family Planning Commission of China since 1991.

From 1958 to 1991 Professor Jiang worked at Jiaotong University, first as Teaching Assistant and Research Assistant, and then as Lecturer. He was promoted to full Professor in 1984. Dr. Jiang holds the following positions: Professor of Peking University, Jiaotong University, and Fudan University. Since 1985 he has been affiliated with Stanford University, Institut D'etudes Politiques de Paris (France), the International Economic Research Centre (India). In addition he has served as visiting Professor in various universities and on numerous occasions as a U.N. expert.

Among Dr. Jiang's honors and awards are the first-class prizes of the National Science and Technology Progress of China in 1987 and 1988 for Population Modeling and the Development of China in the Year 1000 and National Level Specialist, National Advance Worker of China.

Professor Jiang's publications include Technology for Population Analysis and Information Processing (1966), Methods for Regional Development Planning and Decision Making (1986) and others; and over 100 papers on socio-economic demographic research, modeling and simulation, sustainable development, etc.

Ian Johnson

A British national, Mr. Johnson is an economist by training, having studied at the universities of Wales, Sussex, and Harvard. He has been with the World Bank Group for about fifteen years and is currently serving as Assistant Chiev Executive Officer of the Global Environment Facility. Mr. Johnson was recruited to the Bank through the Young Professionals Program and he has worked: as an energy economist in the European and Middle Eastern region; as an economic adviser in the Chief Economist's Office of the European region; and, prior to joining the GEF in 1991, he was an economic adviser in the Policy and Research Vice-Presidency.

He has been involved with the GEF for all of its operational life: from the pilot phase to the negotiations to replenish and restructure the GEF, which were concluded a year ago.

Prior to joining the World Bank, Mr. Johnson was a senior economist with the British Government. He also spent five years in Bangladesh working in the water resource, education, and health sectors as a Program Officer for the United Nations (four years) and a non-governmental organization (one year).

Thomas B. Johansson

Professor Johansson is Director of UNDP's Energy and Atmosphere Programme in the Sustainable Energy and Environment Division (SEED) since September 1994. Dr. Johansson is currently on leave from the University of Lund, where he is Professor of Energy Systems Analysis since 1985. He has participated widely in intergovernmental organizations and processes including focusing on energy and sustainable development issues including: Vice Chairman of the UN Committee on Renewable Sources of Energy and on Energy for Development 1994-95; Chairman of the UN Global Energy Efficiency 21 Project, 1992-94. He was as Director of the Swedish State Power Board (Vattenfall) 1988-91; and his NGO efforts include Board Member of the International Energy Initiative, Stockholm Environment Institute, and Co-Chair Working Group on Energy Strategies and Technologies, China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development.

Professor Johansson has published widely on renewable energy, energy efficiency, and energy and development issues. His most recent publication is "Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuels and Electricity" with co-editors Henry Kelly, A.K.N. Reddy, and R.H. Williams, Island Press, 1993.

Norine Kennedy

Ms. Kennedy serves as Director of Environmental Affairs for the United States Council for International Business, which she joined in January of 1991, following three years at the World Environment Center as Project Manager in its Corporate Programs Department.

The U.S. Council and its Environment Committee works to promote sound environmental policies that are scientifically based and economically justified and to increase awareness in the U.S. and internationally of environmental guidelines and programs set up by industry to regulate itself. As the U.S. branch of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), the U.S. Council has special access to the U.N., particularly the U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP) and the U.N. Commission on Sustainable Development.

Norine Kennedy's career has concentrated on enhancing awareness and participation of the U.S. business community in international environmental policy and management. She has worked closely with representatives of industry, government, and the NGO community on "building bridges" of understanding with regard to conceptual frameworks such as sustainable development and trade and environment and voluntary approaches, as well as on regulatory and technical issues, including environmental auditing and economic instruments.

In addition to staffing the 120-company U.S. Council Environment Committee, she has participated in International Chamber of Commerce Working Groups on Sustainable Development and U.N. Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). She accompanied the U.S. Government Delegation to Preparatory Committees for UNCED and the U.N. Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), took part in the industry delegation at UNCED, and has also attended negotiating sessions for the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Abraham Katz

Abraham Katz has been President of the United States Council for International Business since June 1, 1984, a post that he assumed upon his retirement as an Ambassador from the career Foreign Service. The United States Council is an organization that addresses international economic policy issues, promoting the interests of the American business community in the world economy. It represents the views of U.S. business at the Paris-based Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) through its affiliation with the Business and Industry Advisory Committee (BIAC) of that organization. The Council is also the U.S. arm of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and as such represents the positions of U.S. business on economic issues in the U.N. system, including related agencies such as the GATT, the World Bank, and the IMF. Dr. Katz is alternate U.S. representative on the Executive Board of the ICC. The Council represents American employers in the Geneva-based International Labor Organization (
ILO) and in the International Organisation of Employers. Dr. Katz is an employer member of the Governing Body of the ILO and the employer Vice Chairman of the tripartite Committee on Employment of the ILO. The Council also represents the business community on issues relating to the European Community (E.C.) and acts as secretariat for the U.S. Industry Coordinating Group on the E.C., a mechanism to coordinate the views of the main American business associations on European Community issues.

Abraham Katz retired from the U.S. Foreign Service, after a career of 34 years. From August 1981 until May 1984, Ambassador Katz served as United States Representative to the OECD in Paris. In previous assignments, he held the position of Assistant Secretary of Commerce for International Economic Policy (1980-81), and Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce (1978-80).

Earlier, Dr. Katz served as Deputy Chief of the U.S. Mission to the OECD (1974-78), Director of the Office of OECD, European Communities and Atlantic Political-Economic Affairs in the State Department (1967-74), and Counselor for Economic Affairs in Moscow (1964-66). He has also served abroad in Mexico City and Merida, Yucatan, Mexico.

Dr. Katz's special assignments in the Foreign Service included heading the bask force which prepared the Washington Energy Conference of 1974, negotiating the U.S.-USSR Energy Agreement in 1974, negotiating development finance issues in Operation Pan America in 1959, and serving on the staff of the President's Committee on World Economic Practices in 1958-59.

Dr. Katz was born in New York City. He holds a Bachelor of Arts degree from Brooklyn College, a Master of International Affairs from Columbia University, and a Ph.D. from Harvard University where he has also been a Fellow of the Center for International Affairs. He is the author of The Politics of Economic Reform in the Soviet Union, Praeger, 1972, and The Atlantic Community Reappraised, A Washington Perspective, Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science, XXIX, 2, 1958.

Ambassador Katz is a member of the Cosmos Club of Washington, the Century Association and the Harvard Club of New York, and the Council on Foreign Relations. He was decorated as a Grand Officer - Ordre National de Merite of France. He is a recipient of the Meritorious Service Award of the Department of State. His languages are French, Spanish, Russian, and Hebrew.

Philip S. Khoury

Dr. Khoury is Dean of the School of Humanities and Social Science and Professor of History at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He joined the MIT Faculty in 1981, and was appointed Dean of Humanities and Social Science in 1991. From 1987 until 1991, he served as Associate Dean and Acting Dean. From 1984 and 1986, he held the Class of 1922 Career Development Professorship at MIT.

Professor Khoury, in the capacity of Dean of Humanities and Social Science, is responsible for the academic and administrative operations of a School composed of fourteen departments, programs, and centers; 160 full-time faculty members; 90 lecturers and part-time instructors; 650 undergraduates and graduate students; and an administrative staff of 110.

Professor Khoury is a political and social historian of the Middle East and a frequently invited media commentator on Middle Eastern affairs. Among his many publications are Urban Notables and Arab Nationalism (1983); Syria and the French Mandate (1987), which received the George Louis Beer Prize of the American Historical Association; Tribes and State Formation in the Middle East (1990); The Modern Middle East: A Reader (1993); and Recovering Beirut: Urban Design and Post-war Reconstruction (1993). He is currently writing a book on War and Society in the Middle East. In 1985, he established the Bustani Middle East Seminar at MIT, which is recognized as one of America's leading public forums for the examination of contemporary Middle Eastern affairs. He is a past member of the Board of Directors of the Middle East Studies Association. From 1989 until 1993, he was Co-chair of the Middle East Security Project of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is a member of the American Historical Association, Th
e Middle East Institute, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Pi Gamma Mu.

Professor Khoury has been a Fulbright Scholar and has held fellowships from the Social Science Research Council, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies, the MacArthur Foundation, and the Thomas J. Watson Foundation. He has been a Visiting Associate of St. Antony's College, Oxford University, and since coming to MIT has been a Faculty Associate of Harvard's Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Professor Khoury holds a Ph.D. degree from Harvard University.

Jonathan Lash

Jonathan Lash is President of the World Resources Institute (WRI), a Washington-based center for policy research that provides objective information and practical proposals for policy change that will foster environmentally sound development. WRI works with institutions in more than 50 countries to bring the insights of scientific research, economic analysis, and practical experience to political, business, and nongovernmental organization (NGO) leaders around the world.

In 1993 Mr. Lash was named co-chair of the President's Council on Sustainable Development -- a group of government, business, labor, civil rights, and environmental leaders charged with designing a national strategy for sustainable development. He also chaired the National Commission on Superfund -- a high-level, private group that recommended changes in the U.S. Superfund legislation. Mr. Lash is the first U.S. member of the Earth Council, and international organization of NGO leaders from 25 countries that will track the implementation of the sustainable development agenda created by the Earth Summit in 1992. He serves on the advisory board of the Tata Energy and Resources Institute and as an international advisor to the Keidanren Committee on Nature Conservation in Japan. Mr. Lash is a board member of The Alliance to Save Energy, The Keystone Center, the Putney School, and the Vermont Law School.

For two years before coming to WRI, Mr. Lash directed the environmental law and policy program of the Vermont Law School. He helped to found the Institute for Sustainable Communities, which manages environmental training, planning, and education programs in Central and Eastern Europe.

From 1987 to 1991, Mr. Lash headed the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, having served the previous two years as Vermont's Commissioner of Environmental Conservation. During his tenure in Vermont government, Mr. Lash helped write a score of innovative statutes on issues ranging from pollution prevention and solid waste management to protection of pristine streams.

A former Peace Corps volunteer and federal prosecutor, Mr. Lash served as senior staff attorney at the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) from 1978 to 1985, litigating on issues related to public lands, federal coal leasing, strip mining, energy conservation, and synthetic fuels and wrote several books on environmental topics.

Mr. Lash received a BA from Harvard College and a Masters in Education and a JD from Catholic University.

David H. Marks

David H. Marks received a B.S. in Civil Engineering (1962) and an M.S. in Environmental Engineering (1964) from Cornell University. After serving as a Commissioned Officer in the United States Public Health Service working on water quality problems in the Delaware Estuary, he received a Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering (1969) from the Johns Hopkins University. He joined the Department of Civil Engineering at MIT in 1969 as an Assistant Professor, was promoted to Associate Professor in 1972, and to Professor in 1975. His professional career has included stints in large-scale river basin development in Argentina, Colombia, the High Aswan Dam in Egypt, Yugoslavia, Greece, and India. His area of expertise is in how large-scale infrastructure systems are organized and managed with special concern for the anticipation and mitigation of larger social, environmental, and economic impacts. In the United States he has been instrumental in work on large-scale infrastructure renewal, the clean-up of hazardous wastes, and the provision of safe drinking water.

Over at MIT from 1985 to 1992, leading it in significant research and educational initiatives. He has used this vantage point to comment widely on the evolution of engineering, and particularly on environmental engineering education. He is also instrumental in MIT's efforts in the Hazardous Waste Management area and has helped to form and lead a new initiative: The Program in Environmental Engineering Education and Research (PEEER). Focused on Technology and a Sustainable Environment, PEEER is interested in
source control, pollution prevention, industrial ecology, clean products, clean technologies, monitoring, environmental modeling, waste management, environmental mitigation, and bringing together better science and technology to environmental decision-making. It is an interdisciplinary activity across all the Schools at MIT. Since 1993 he has been the MIT Coordinator of the MIT/Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology/University of Tokyo Alliance for Global Sustainability, a tripartite large-scale cooperation to bring research education and public outreach to problems at the intersection of economic development and environmental and resource conservation concerns. This has led to work in Argentina, Brazil, Malaysia, Thailand, China, and Japan in support of environmental and sustainability concerns. David H. Marks has also worked closely with groups at MIT in the understanding of the interface between science, technology, and society, including being a founding member of the new Technology, Management, and Policy Program. He is a member of the Board of Directors of Camp Dresser and McKee, an environmental firm in Cambridge, Mass., where he is instrumental in many of their technological developments.

Fred Moavenzadeh

Fred Moavenzadeh is the Director of the Technology and Development Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His current interests include technology and development, with special focus on formulation of technological policies in public works and energy sectors and the transfer and adaptation of technology to conditions of newly industrialized countries, emphasizing institutional structures required to develop a viable science and technology infrastructure.

As Director of the Technology and Development Program since 1973, Dr. Moavenzadeh has been involved in a wide variety of research and teaching activities of an interdisciplinary nature; and as part of this program, he has, in collaboration with other MIT faculty, taught subjects on engineering issues as well as economic, social, and political issues involved in the evaluation of investment and technological decisions. He has served as a consultant to various United Nations agencies, such as the International Labor Office, the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, and the United Nations Development Programme.

Dr. Moavenzadeh has directed collaborative programs with the American University of Beirut, Cairo University, Technische UniversitŠt Berlin, and the American University in Beirut in the area of science, technology, and development and conducted numerous studies for various organizations including the Organizacion Latinoamerica de Energia (OLADE) on "Internal Energy Pricing Policy and the Effects of Energy Price Change on the Economy" of four Latin American countries.

Presently TDP is working on a Collaborative Program of Science and Technology with the Province of Mendoza in Argentina; and is pursuing possible collaborative efforts in Brazil, Venezuela, Thailand, and Malaysia. He has conducted and supervised major research activities and served as a personal consultant to the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, and several international and consulting companies.

Mario Molina

Professor Molina has been a world leader in developing our scientific understanding of the chemistry of the stratospheric ozone layer and its susceptibility to man-made perturbations. He was a co-author, with F.S. Rowland, of the 1974 publication in the British magazine Nature, of their research on the threat to the ozone layer from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases that were being used as propellants in spray cans, as the cooling medium in refrigerators and air conditioners, and in plastic foams. Their research laid the groundwork for the discovery in 1985 of the ozone hole over the South Pole and led to the 1987 United Nations' Montreal Protocol, an international treaty which bans the production of CFCs from 1996 on.

In addition to the 1974 publication, Professor Molina and his coworkers published a series of papers from 1976-86 that defined and refined the relevant kinetics of the compounds that act as "temporary reservoirs" for the free radicals responsible for catalytic ozone destruction. More recently, they demonstrated in the laboratory a fundamentally new chemical reaction whereby chlorine is activated on the surface of ice cloud particles in the polar stratosphere. They also proposed and demonstrated experimentally a new reaction sequence which accounts for most of the observed ozone destruction in the Antarctic stratosphere.

Professor Molina was born in Mexico City, Mexico, in 1943. He holds a chemical engineer degree (1965) from the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, a postgraduate degree (1967) from the University of Freiburg, West Germany, and a Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry (1972) from the University of California, Berkeley.

Professor Molina holds a joint appointment in the MIT Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences and the Department of Chemistry. He came to MIT in 1989 after holding teaching and research positions at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico; the University of California, Irvine, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology.

Professor Molina has received several awards for his scientific work, including the Tyler Prize in Ecology and Energy Award in 1983, the Esselen Award of the American Chemical Society for Public Service through Chemistry in 1987, and the Newcomb-Cleveland Prize of the American Association for the Advancement of Science for his 1987 paper in Science describing his work on the Antarctic Ozone Hole chemistry. In 1989 he received the NASA Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement, and from 1990-92 he was a Pew Scholar on Conservation and the Environment. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1993. In 1994 he was named by President Clinton to serve on the 18-member President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). He shared the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Professor F. Sherwood Rowland and Professor Paul Crutzen for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.

Joel Moses

Professor Moses is Provost and D.C. Jackson Professor of Computer Sciences and Engineering at MIT. He was born November 25, 1941 in Petach Tikvah, Israel. Professosr Moses was educated in the United States, receiving a B.A., magna cum laude, Columbia University (1962); M.A., Columbia (1963); Ph.D. in Mathematics, MIT (1967).

Professor Moses's positions have also included Assistant Professor, Electrical Engineering, 1967-71; Associate Professor, Electrical Engineering, 1971-77, Professor, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1977 to present; Head, Mathlab Group, Laboratory for Computer Science, 1971-83; Associate Director, Laboratory for Computer Science, 1974-78; Associate Head for Computer Science and Engineering, 1978-81; Head, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1981-89; Visiting Professor of Business Administration, Harvard Business School, 1989-90; Dean, School of Engineering, 1991-95; Provost, 1995-present. Led the development of the MACSYMA system for formulation manipulation, one of the largest computer systems for formula manipulation available today.

Among Dr. Moses's areas of interest are: organization of large complex systems, competitiveness, product realization, software production, knowledge-based systems, computers and education, symbolic manipulation.

Awards and Honors include a paper chosen for volume Best Computer Papers - 1975, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science Achievement Award, 1984; Member, National Academy of Engineering, 1986; Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1987; Fellow, IEEE, 1990; Amer. Soc. for Engineering Education Centennial Certificate, 1993; Amer. Soc. for Engineering Education Plaque for Outstanding Service, 1995; Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1996.

Other current and former positions include Director, Analog Devices, Inc.; Director, Coltec Industries, Inc.; Member, Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, Assoc. for Computing Machinery; Member, Nominating Committee, Information, Computing and Communication Section, AAAS; Member, Academic Advisory Committee, Sematech; Member, Advisory Council, Cornell University School of Engineering; Member, Draper Prize Committee, National Academy of Engineering; Member, Committee on Foreign Participation in US R&D, NAE.

R. K. Pachauri

Since 1981, Dr. Pachauri has served as Director of Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi, India. He holds an M.S. in Industrial Engineering, with a minor in Economics from North Carolina State University, and a Ph.D. in Economics and Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering from North Carolina State University.

Since June 1994 Dr. Pachauri has served as Adviser (Energy and Sustainable Management of Natural Resources) to the United Nations Development Programme. Earlier positions include: Visiting Research Fellow at the World Bank (1990); Senior Visiting Fellow, Resources Systems Institute, East-West Center, Honolulu (1982); Visiting Professor, Resource Economics, College of Mineral and Energy Resources, West Virginia University (1981-1982); Director, Consulting and Applied Research Division, Administrative Staff College of India (1979-1981); Member, Senior Faculty, Administrative Staff College of India (1975-1979); Assistant Professor, Department of Economics and Business, North Carolina State University (1974-1975); President, Solar Energy Society of India (SESI) (1990 to present); President, Asian Energy Institute (1993-present); President (1988) and Chairman (1989-90), International Association for Energy Economics (IAEE).

Currently Dr. Pachauri serves as Member, Energy Policy Committee, Planning Commission, Government of India (1995-present); Member, Board of the International Solar Energy Society (ISES) (1991-present); Member, World Resources Institute (WRI) Council (1992-present); Member, World Energy Council (WEC) (1990-1993); Member, Climate Institute (1994-present); Chairman, Work Group A - WEC Committee on Developing Countries (1993-present); Member, Technical Committee of Wastelands Development, Government of India (1994-present); Member, National Environmental Council, Government of India under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister of India (1993-present); and Member, "R" Group (Restructuring of Oil Industry), Government of India, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (1994-present).

Among his earlier responbilities were serving as Chairman, Sub-Group of the Working Group on Energy Conservation for the Eighth Plan, set up by the Planning Commission, Government of India (1989-90); and Member, Advisory Board on Energy (ABE), reporting directly to the Prime Minister of India, Government of India (1983-1988).

Goran A. Persson

Dr. Persson is Managing Director of MISTRA, a Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research.

Dr. Persson received a Ph.D. degree in Chemical Engineering, Chalmers university of Technology, Gothenburg. He served as Deputy Director General, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, and then as Under-Secretary of State, Ministry of Environmental and Natural Resources, prior to joining MISTRA. The Foundation's focuses on solution-oriented research guided by long-term vision and clear goals.

John T. Preston

John T. Preston is President and CEO of Quantum Energy Technologies Corp., a high-tech company developing energy-saving technologies. Additionally, Mr. Preston is Chairman of Medical Foods, Inc., Vice Chairman of University corporation of Radiology, Chairman of the Massachusetts Technology Park Corp., Director of Molten Metal Technology, Director of Clean Harbors, Director of Energy BioSystems and Co-Director of the Entrepreneurship Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Mr. Preston has served on technical or managerial advisory boards for the U.S. Department of Defense, NASA, MIT Enterprise Forum, Warner Lambert, the National Science and Technology Board of Singapore, U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Office of Technology Assessment, the National Technology Transfer Center, and many others. Additionally, Mr. Preston has lectured at or chaired White House conferences for Presidents Reagan, Bush, and Clinton and has testified before Congress on government policy and technology issues six times since 1987.

From 1986 to 1995, Mr. Preston was Director of Technology Development at MIT. The technology licensing and new venture spin-off activities which he built at MIT are recognized as among the best in the world. During his tenure at MIT, MIT led all other universities in number of patents, licenses, and spin-off companies. Mr. Preston participated in the creation of over 60 companies, of which 17 are now publicly traded. He is considered one of the leading authorities on technology commercialization and has lectured extensively on the subject.

From 1982 to 1986, Mr. Preston was President of Visual Communications Network, Inc. (VCN). VCN developed and licensed graphics software for the IBM personal computer and was one of the pioneers of presentation graphics on personal computers. From 1977 to 1982, Mr. Preston helped lead MIT's connections with large international high technology companies, ending his tenure with the title Associate Director of Industrial Liaison at MIT. During this period the Industrial Liaison Program tripled in revenues and became key to MIT's activities. Mr. Preston led both marketing and European activities during this period.

Mr. Preston is the recipient of numerous honors and awards. He is an honorary alum of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was awarded the rank of "Knight of the Order of National Merit" by President Mitterrand from the Government of France. He received the Thomas Jefferson Award from the Technology Transfer Society and the Renaissance Award from Stevens Institute of Technology.

Kenneth Prewitt

Kenneth Prewitt is currently the President of the Social Science Research Council, a position he also held from 1979 to 1985. For the past ten years he has been Senior Vice President of the Rockefeller Foundation, where his primary duties were with the international science-based development program. He taught for fifteen years at the University of Chicago, in the Political Science Department, and for shorter periods taught at Stanford University, Columbia University, Washington University, and the University of Nairobi. He served for five years as the Director of the National Opinion Research Center.

Dr. Prewitt is the author of co-author of a dozen books. He was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship and is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the Center for the Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has served on a number of boards and advisory committees.

Cornelia Quennet-Thielen

Ms. Quennet-Thielen has had an extensive career prior to her current responsibilities in the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Director for International Cooperation and Legal Affairs/Environment and Development. With legal training as a background, she has served as a Judge and Prosecuting Attorney of the Federal State of Rhineland-Palatinate; as Personal Assistant to the Federal Minister for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Prof. Dr. Tšpfer, and in the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, European Environmental Policy Division.

Concurrently Ms. Quennet-Thielen has been extensively involved with the UN system, in various capacities. These include: Member of the German Delegation to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro and its Preparatory Committee; Head/Member of the German Delegation to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); Co-Chairperson of IPCC-AFOS Subgroup; Member of the German Delegation to the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC); and Co-Chairperson, INC/FCCC Working Group I (Commitments). She served as Head/Member of the German Delegation to the Conference of the Parties of the FCCC and its subsidiary bodies; as Member of the German Delegation to the UN Commission on Sustainable Development; and as Member of the German Delegation to the Participants' Meetings of the Global Environmental Facility.

Among her most notable awards are: Fellow with the German National Fellowship Foundation (Studienstifung des Deutschen Volkes); Marshall Memorial Fellow, German Marshall Fund of the United States; German-American-Jewish Exchange Programme, American Jewish Committee and Konrad Adenauer Foundation; XI. German-American Young Leaders Conference, Atlantik-BrŸcke.

Sethuramiah L. N. Rao

Dr. Rao received a Ph.D in Population Studies from the University of Pennsylvania. Among academic recognition obtained are listing in Marqui's Who is Who in The East (1995-96); Honorary Faculty Associate, University of North Carolina (1981-82); American Men and Women of Science (1973); Distinction at Ph.D degree examination (1971); National Honorary Public Health Society (Delta Omega) (1968); First Rank at IIPS Course (1967); First Rank at M.Sc degree examination (1963); Gold Medalist at B.Sc degree examination (1961).

Over the past two decades, Dr. Rao served in the following acapacities: Chief, Executive Board, UN Liaison and External Branch, and Deputy Director, Information and External Relations Division, UNFPA (1992-present); UNFPA Country Director, Ethiopia (March 1991-September 1992); Chief, Population Data, Policy and Research Branch, Technical and Evaluation Division, UNFPA (September 1987-February 1991); Chief, Policy Branch, Policy and Evaluation Division, UNFPA (February 1982-August 1987); Chief, Population Planning and Development Section, Policy and Technical Division, UNFPA (April 1980-February 1982); Policy Officer, Office of Policy Analysis and Statistics, UNFPA (January 1978-March 1980); Project Manager, United Nations Technical Assistance Project, UNDP, Colombo, Sri Lanka (October 1974-December 1977); Professor and Head, Population Research Unit, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore, India (October 1973-September 1974). In addition, he has served as Consultant to agencies in India, U.S., Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Ethiopia; editorial services to journals; participation at professional meeting as author, secretary, discussant, organizer, or keynote speaker;.

Dr. Rao is author of books and articles, including most recently, several chapters in Population Policies and Programmes (1991, edited by Nafis Sadik); "UNFPA Programme Priorities and Future Directions in the Light of ICPD (1994, co-author); "Population Question and Global Governance" (1993) "Population and Development Issues Confronting the Youth of Ethiopia" (1992).

Khalid Saeed

Khalid Saeed is Professor of Infrastructure Planning and Management at the Asian Institute of Technology. He holds a joint Ph.D. in System Dynamics and Economic Development from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and specializes in experimental analysis of economic, organizational, and political agendas using the heuristical System Dynamics approach. Professor Saeed has authored two books, Towards Sustainable Development and Development Planning and Policy Design, besides many papers on economic development, public policy, and methodology. He has received the 1995 Jay Wright Forrester Award for his work on Sustainable Development and has served also as President '95 of the System Dynamics Society.

Heinrich Siegmann

Dr. Siegmann currently serves as Vice President, Union Bank of Switzerland, UBS Economic Research, Head of Economic Research Emerging Markets, Zurich, Switzerland (1993-present). He was educated at University of Stuttgart and University of Colorado, Master of Science in Computer Science, 1976; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Ph.D. in Political Science (1983).

Among his earlier activities were serving as Research Associate, Science Center Berlin, Germany (1979-86); Research Associate and Co-Director, Program "Stability Oriented Security and Defense Policy," Max-Planck-Society, Starnberg, Germany (1986-89); Director, German-American Institute, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany (1989-93);

Professional affiliations include Lecturer at University of Zurich and Member of the Board (Beirat), University of Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.

Maurice F. Strong

Born in Canada and a resident of Toronto, Canada, Mr. Strong has longstanding ties with the private and public sectors.

Mr. Strong's current positions include Senior Advisor to the President, the World Bank; Advisor to the United Nations; Chairman of the Earth Council; Chairman of the World Resources Institute; Foundation Director, World Economic Forum; Chairman, Technology Development, Inc.; Chairman, Storvest Holdings, Inc.; Chairman, Quantum Energy Technologies, Inc.; Chairman of the International Advisory Group, CH2M Hill Companies, Ltd.; Member, Toyota International Advisory Board; Member, Lamonte-Doherty Observatory Advisory Board.

His previous appointments include Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Ontario Hydro (December 1992-December 1995); President, Chairman, and Chief Executive Officer of Petro Canada; President of Power Corporation of Canada; Chairman of the Canada Development Investment Corporation, the Canadian government holding company for state enterprises.

Mr. Strong served as Secretary-General of the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (The Earth Summit) and Under-Secretary General of the United Nations (January 1990-September 1992); Under-Secretary General of the United Nations and Executive Coordinator of the United Nations Office for Emergency Operations in Africa (1985 and 1986); First President of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA); Chairman of the Board of Governors of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) in Canada; Director, Rockefeller Foundation; President, World Federation of United Nations Associations; President, National Council of YMCAs of Canada; Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment from November 1970 to December 1972 and subsequently became the first Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in Nairobi, Kenya (January 1973-December 1975); Member, World Commission on Environment and Development (1983-87); Commission on G
lobal Governance (1992-96).

Honors include Member of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, the Order of Canada, honorary doctorates from 37 universities, Fellow of the Royal Society (U.K.), Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, and Fellow of the Royal Architectural Society of Canada.

Glen L. Urban

As Dean of the Sloan School of Management at MIT, Professor Urban is a leading educator, a prize-winning researcher specializing in marketing and new product development, an entrepreneur, an author, a sculptor, and a sailor. He has been a member of the MIT Sloan School of Management faculty since 1966, was deputy dean at the school from 1987 to 1991, and was named dean in 1993.

Professor Urban's research focus is on management science models that improve the productivity of new product development. In a methodology he devised called Information Acceleration, he uses computer technology to simulate future sales of products such as cars, computer systems, telecommunications, and drugs. The precision of the technique can save manufacturers of durable and high-tech industrial products millions of dollars in development costs. One Information Acceleration field experiment sponsored by General Motors' Electric Vehicle Division contributed significantly to GM's decision to modify its plans for investment in plant and equipment to launch the new automobile.

Information Acceleration emerged from Urban's earlier ground-breaking work in premarket forecasting for frequently-purchased consumer (nondurable) goods called Assessor. Since the Assessor concept, it has been used to forecast the success and profitability of more than 3,000 new consumer products around the world.

Trained initially in engineering and business -- earning a B.S. in mechanical engineering in 1963 and an M.B.A. in 1964, both from the University of Wisconsin -- Urban went on to earn a Ph.D. in marketing at Northwestern University in 1966. He is co-author of five books, including Design and Marketing of New Products (second edition, 1993), Advanced Marketing Strategy (1991), Essentials of New Product Management (1986), and Management Science in Marketing (1969). He has also published over twenty articles on premarket forecasting of new products, test marketing, product line planning, leading-edge users in new product development, and consumer budgeting. His papers have won several prestigious awards, including two O'Dells -- in 1983 and 1986 -- for the best papers published in marketing research. In 1996 he received the American Marketing Association Paul D. Converse Award for outstanding contributions to the development of the science of marketing.

With two other researchers, Professor Urban founded Management Decision Systems, Inc., a marketing consulting firm that merged with Information Resources, Inc. in 1985. He also co-founded Management Science for Health and its spin-off John Snow, Inc., both consulting firms specializing in international health care and family planning that have grown to several hundred employees worldwide. More recently, he co-founded Marketing Technology Interface, Inc., a company that uses multimedia computing to support strategic new product design, which merged in 1993 with Mercer Management, a consulting firm.

Charles M. Vest

Charles M. Vest is the fifteenth President of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. President Vest has set three strategies for maintaining and enhancing the excellence of MIT: identifying the most critical emerging directions in education and research, providing a strong financial base for MIT's programs, and improving the value and efficiency of services in support of these programs.

In recognition of the increasing interdependence of economic, technological, environmental, and political systems, both in the US and throughout the world, his priorities include building a stronger international dimension into education and research programs, developing stronger relations with industry, enhancing racial and cultural diversity within MIT, and rebuilding public understanding and support of higher education and research.

To help serve this latter goal, President Vest serves as a member of the President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), the Executive Committee of the Council on Competitiveness, the Massachusetts Governor's Task Force on Economic Growth and Technology, and the National Research Council Board on Engineering Education. He was also chairman of the President's Advisory Committee on the Redesign of the Space Station.

Prior to taking office at MIT in 1990, Dr. Vest was the Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs of the University of Michigan.

A member of the mechanical engineering faculty at MIT, his research interests are in the thermal sciences and in the engineering applications of lasers and coherent optics. He is author of numerous papers on these subjects and a book, Holographic Interferometry. He has served as associate editor of the Journal of the Optical Society of America and as a consultant to several companies and laboratories. He is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the National Academy of Engineering, and Sigma Ix. In 1994, he received an Honorary Doctorate from West Virginia University.

Dr. Vest is the president of the National Consortium for Graduate Degrees for Minorities in Engineering and Science, Inc. (GEM). He is a director of IBM and the E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, a trustee of the New England Aquarium, Wellesley College, and WGBH Educational Foundation (ex officio) and a member of the Corporation of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. He is trustee and chairman of the Council of Presidents of the Universities Research Association, a member of the Total Quality Leadership Steering Committee, the Ronald E. McNair Foundation Advisory Board, the Association of American Universities Executive Committee, and a founding member of the Board of Associates of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research.

Michael J. Walsh

Michael J. Walsh is a Senior Vice President of Centre Financial Products Limited, the managing agent for Centre Trading Partners L.P., a risk management firm specializing in developing and trading products. Bridging the Gap Between the Reinsurance and Capital Marketsª, as well as trading in emerging environmental and energy markets.

Dr. Walsh previously served as a Senior Economist with the Chicago Board of Trade, where he directed efforts to develop exchange-based environmental markets. This included direction of annual auctions of sulfur dioxide emission allowances conducted on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The sulfur dioxide allowance market is the largest emission trading program ever devised. He also directed, in conjunction with a team of industry and public sector leaders, establishment of the CBOT Recyclable Materials Exchange, an electronic marketplace backed by product standards, grading procedures and dispute resolution services.

As a consultant to the U.S. Agency for International Development, Dr. Walsh has provided instructional seminars on emissions trading for industry and government officials from several eastern European countries. He recently served as a gubernatorial appointee to the Florida Air Emissions Trading Commission.

Dr. Walsh earned a Ph.D. in Economics from Michigan State University in 1987.

Anders Wijkman

Mr. Wijkman currently serves as Assistant Acministratoe of the United Nations Development Programme. He was born in Stockholm in 1944, and graduated from Stockholm University in 1967, with a focus on political science and economics.

Member of the Swedish Parliament 1970-78, focusing on foreign affairs issues, including foreign aid as well as issues related to energy and environment.

In 1979-88 Mr. Wijkman served as Secretary General of the Swedish Red Cross. During these years the Swedish Red Cross became increasingly involved in relief as well as development activities in a great number of regions in the South. The Focus was very much on disaster prevention. In 1984 the Swedish Red Cross published an extensive study on natural disasters -- even if triggered by natural events -- are man-made and ought to be possible to avoid. The study was later turned into a widely circulated co-authored paper entitled Natural Disasters: Acts of God or Acts of Men? On the national front, the Swedish Red Cross became very actively involved in refugee matters, in particular, in trying to assist asylum-seekers. Another important initiative was the launching of a national programme aiming at educating the public about HIV and assisting HIV victims.

Mr. Wijkman served as President of the International Red Cross Disaster Relief Commission 1981-89. The task was primarily to give guidance to the Red Cross Headquarters in Geneva on matters related to disaster relief, disaster preparedness and prevention. In addition, he served as Secretary-General for the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, the leading environmental NGO in Sweden with a membership of approximately 200,000. The main focus is on conservation as well as environmental protection activities -- including advocacy -- on the national front.

As Director-General of SAREC (Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries) 1992-95, whose mandate is to support research cooperation with the South, Mr. Wijkman has focused on issues of research and capacity-building.

In addition to serving as Assistant Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme, Mr. Wijkman is also UNDP's Director, Bureau for Policy and Programme Support, 1995 to present.

Mr. Wijkman is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (1988) and the Club of Rome and the author of several books on issues related to disasters, development, environment, and AIDS/HIV.

Norio Yamamoto

Dr. Yamamoto is Research Director, Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. and Managing Director/Secretary General, Global Infrastructure Fund (GIF) Research Foundation Japan. He graduated from Department of Communication Engineering, Tohoku University in 1963, and received a Ph.D. in 1971.

Joining Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. in 1971, Dr. Yamamoto engaged in interdisciplinary policy analysis for science and technology, and public works, such as technology transfer of microelectronics to LDC, Socio-Economic analysis of "Trans-Tokyo-Bay Bridge Project" and other major infrastructure projects. He has participated in the atudy task force team for "information Society" in Japan since 1971 and joined "Groupe de Paris." The essences of this study was introduced into various concepts such as "informatization," "informatique" in Europe and IT, and "Information Highway" in the U.S.

Dr. Yamamoto is a member of the Advisory Board of Institute of International Infrastructure Research Japan; member of the Board of the Millennium Society of the U.S.; and founding member of Global Infrastructure Fund Research Foundation Japan in 1990. His primary focus is on promotion of global scale infrastructure project in the developing part of the world, such as "environmental rehabilitation of the Aral Sea," "Water Resource Development in Eastern Hyamalayan Region."